El neuropsicólogo Ramón Fernández de Bobadilla responde las dudas pendientes sobre su ponencia

The neuropsychologist Ramón Fernández de Bobadilla addresses the unanswered questions from his presentation


On September 25th, the neuropsychologist Ramón Fernández de Bobadilla gave a free online presentation at NeuronUP Academy on cognitive rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease. After his talk, a question and answer period was held, but due to time limits and the great interest of the audience, some questions remained unanswered. For the sake of completeness, our speaker agreed to answer them later through our blog and, today, we are posting his answers!

Before providing you with the answers to your questions, however, NeuronUP would like to thank Ramón once again for his willingness and ability to answer your questions.

Questions from the presentation

  1. Where can I purchase or download the Parkinson’s diseaseCognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS)?

You have the information available at www.movementscales.com, where you can download the scales free of charge for personal, non-commercial use.

  1. What are the “clinical criteria forthe differential diagnosis ofParkinson’s disease and parkinsonism”?

Parkinsonism is a term that covers a range of neurological conditions that sharesome symptoms with Parkinson´s disease but whose features and progression differentiatefrom Parkinson’s disease. Thoseneurodegenerative conditions have been collectively named Parkinson-plus syndromes. For this reason, these syndromescan be often confused with Parkinson’sdisease.

The most common of the Parkinson-plus syndromes include progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasaldegeneration (CBD), andmultiple system atrophy (MSA); while the first syndrome is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal deposits of the protein tau and neuronal loss, the specific causes of the last two syndromes remain unknown.These three syndromes feature motor symptoms similar to those seen in Parkinson’s disease: rigidity (in the three), bradykinesia (PSP and CBD) andpostural instability (PSP), along with other non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment (CBD) and dysphagia (PSP).

Even when all these syndromes can have overlapping signs and symptoms, there are certain key features to help the practitioner with the differential diagnosis.

There is considerable literature available on this subject. The following link is an article(free access) discussing the recognition of atypical parkinsonisms.


  1. How often should cognitive rehabilitation sessions be carried out in patients with atypical parkinsonian syndromes?

There are many factors that must be taken into account when determining the duration and intensity of cognitive rehabilitation therapy programs for these patients (e.g., degree of cognitive and/or motor impairment, drug tolerance, family factors, economic factors, etc.).

Depending on these circumstances, there are patients who need higher workload and greater monitoring (2-3 weekly sessions) while others need less (1 hour per month).

However, ethics and common sense shouldalways come first.

Watch Ramón Fernández de Bobadilla’s presentation again

Would you like to watc hRamón Fernández de Bobadilla’s presentation on cognitive rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease? If you are a NeuronUP client, you can!

How can I watch Ramón Fernández deBobadilla’s pre-recorded presentation?

  1. Access NeuronUP with your user name and password.
  2. Click on “NeuronUP Academy.”
  3. Now you can enjoy Ramón Fernández de Bobadilla’s presentation.

For more information, click here.

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